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Ramadan Mubarak


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Whoever  is compelled to break his fast for a valid reason, such as donating blood to save a life, and he or she does not have strength to do so without food, the person is allowed to break his fast. Indeed, it is mandatory on him to break, because saving a life is mandatory. As they say: Mala, yatimul wajib illa bihi fahuwa wajid. (An action necessary to accomplish a mandatory act is mandatory.) Similarly, the person who needs to break his fast to gain strength so as to participate in defending Muslim life and property should break his fast.In a hadith reported by Abi Sa'ed Al-Khudri (RAA) he said: "We journeyed with the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) to Makkah while observing the fast of Ramadan. When we stopped at a place, he said, `You are getting near your enemy and breaking fast will help you gain your strength.' This was a concession. Some of us continued to fast, while others broke their fast.
Then, we stopped again, and the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, `You are meeting your enemy in the morning and breaking fast is better for your stamina.' `Break!' That was an order. So, we broke." (Muslim/Ahmed) This hadith indicates how the desire to regain strength is an independent reason, besides a journey, to permit someone to break his fast.
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Redemption of Breaking a Fast (Al-Qada)
The groups who are permitted to break fast due to the reasons mentioned should redeem the day(s) they missed after Ramadan. Allah (SWT) States: "The prescribed number (should be made up) from days later." (Al-Qur'an 2:185) If he breaks the whole month, the whole month should be redeemed. If the month is 30 days, 30 days are due on him. If the month is 29 days, 29 days are due.
Technically, the time period of redemption is the whole year before next Ramadan. If he missed ten days, the redemption is due ten days before next Ramadan. However, it is preferred to redeem as soon as the obstacle is removed, because it is better to meet the obligation and free yourself from the responsibility without delay known as Ibraudh-Dhimmah.It should not be delayed until next Ramadan without any good reason. The Prophet's wife `Aishah has been reported as saying, "Sometime when I miss some days of Ramadan, I would not be able to redeem them except in the month
of Sha`aban." The narrator of the Hadith, Yahya, added: "She was busy serving the Messenger of Allah (PBUH)." (Bukhari and Muslim). Delaying to the next Ramadan may lead to piling up fasts, which may be difficult for him to make up, or he may die in the mean time. If he died before making it up, there will be no blame on him because Allah gave him allowance to make up missed fasts. But if he is able but neglected it, his next of kin should redeem on his behalf.
The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Whoever dies before redeeming his missed fast, his next of kin should redeem it for him." (Bukhari/Muslim) Indeed, a group of relatives can redeem it for him, each fasting a certain amount of days until the Qada is complete. If there is no next of kin, or there is one who does not wish to fast on his behalf, his guardian (Wali) can redeem it by feeding people instead of fasting. The proof for this case is two things: analogy (al-Qiyaas) and Sunnah. The fear of the elderly person of fasting, in that it may endanger his life, is similar to the case of pregnant and nursing women. Some said the same text cited as a proof for permitting the elderly to break fast and feed poor people could be cited here too, because the verse is general.
In a Hadith reported by Anas Bin Malik Alka`aby (RAA), the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "Allah permitted the sojourner to break fast (and make it up), and his Salaat is cut in half. Also, pregnant women and nursing mothers are permitted to break their fast." (Tirmidhi) If menstruation appears while the woman is fasting, even if it is seconds before sunset, the fast of that day is invalidated. She should make the day up, that is, if the fast is a mandatory fast, like Ramadan. But if it is a voluntary fast, she has the option of making it up or not. Should menstruation appear during daytime, the rest of the day's fast is invalidated.
If menstruation ceases during the night, even seconds before Fajr, the fast of that day becomes mandatory, because she is among the eligible, and the obstacle (Mawaani'e) to eligibility has been removed. She should fast even before she takes Ghusl (shower, or purifying bath). Similarly, with a woman bleeding as a result of childbirth (Nifaas), her case is identical to that of a menstruating woman.
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