Issue#162 15th February 2009
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- 2 hard boiled eggs, sliced
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- 8 large slices of white bread
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INFANT FEVER

Fevers are fact of life for most children. In most cases they are nothing to worry about, but it is important to monitor the symptoms closely and to seek medical advice if they persist.

What is a fever?
Fever has been defined as a body temperature elevated to at least 1F above the 'normal' of 98.6F (37.0C). A baby's temperature normally varies by as much as 2F, depending on the temperature of his surroundings, clothing worn, degree of stress, level of activity or time of day.
What prompts a fever?

In most cases a fever is the body's reaction to an acute viral or bacterial infection. Raising the temperature helps create an inhospitable environment for viral or bacterial invaders, it also stimulates the production of disease-fighting white blood cells.
Why are babies prone to fevers?

The body's temperature control system is not well developed in babies. Infant and childhood fevers can be caused by a number of different factors including:

  • Overexertion

  • Dehydration

  • Mosquito bites

  • Bee stings

  • Allergic reactions

  • Viral or bacteria infections

What are the symptoms? Typical symptoms of a fever include coughing, aches or pains, an inability to sleep and shivering. Other symptoms include poor appetite, lethargy and prolonged irritability. In some cases breathing may be difficult.
What are the treatments?
Dehydration is a risk for infants, and a feverish baby should always be given lots of fluids. A child with a temperature of less than 102F (38.8C) does not always require immediate medical attention. The child should be observed, and help sought if the symptoms appear to get worse, or the fever does not subside within 24 hours. A child with a temperature of 102F or higher should be given paracetamol. A doctor or pharmacist should be consulted for a recommended dose.A doctor's advice should always be sought for a child whose temperature is 104F (40C) or higher.
Children should not be given aspirin. Several studies link aspirin use in children with Reye's Syndrome a severe illness that often is fatal.
Are there danger signs?
Certain symptoms, when combined with a fever, warrant an immediate call to the doctor. These include:

  • Red spots on the skin, sensitive eyes and runny nose (measles)

  • Red, itchy spots (chicken pox)

  • Stiffness in the neck or headache (a sign of a more severe infection)

Febrile seizures
Occasionally, a child with a fever will have a seizure. This is called a febrile seizure, and it demands immediate attention from a doctor. The seizures do not seem to be related to the height of the fever, or to the rapidity with which it rises, but a small number of children seem to be predisposed to attacks. About 50% of the children who suffer one febrile seizure will go on to have another one. About 33% will have a third one. While waiting for a doctor to arrive, it is important to follow basic instructions:

  • Keep the child upright and make sure they are breathing well

  • Stay with the child and talk reassuringly

  • Watch for changes in breathing, and make sure that the airways are kept open

  • Clear the area to prevent injury

  • Do not restrain as this can cause additional injury

  • Try placing a soft pillow or blanket under the child's head

  • Loosen clothing to prevent injury and ease discomfort

  • If vomiting occurs, turn the head to the side so there is no risk of his choking on inhaled vomit

Credit BBCNews.com


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Doctors will need to pass test for contracts’ renewal
Arab News
MAKKAH: The Ministry of Health will not renew any work contracts with doctors, nurses and medical technicians both in private and government sectors unless they pass a test of the Saudi Council for Health Specialties, Al-Madinah daily reported yesterday.
“The Medical and Pharmacy Licensing Department of the Health Directorate in the Makkah province has sent a memo to medical and related establishments about the decision. The department has also taken steps to prepare a database for health establishments in the province,” Dr. Muhammad Al- Mehmadi, director of the department, told the newspaper.
“The council rejected 1,500 certificates of doctors, pharmacists, nurses and other medical technicians in various medical specializations because it suspected the genuineness of the documents during the past few months. The attestation of the council has been rated very high not in the Kingdom alone but internationally as well,” said Dr. Hussein Al-Feraihi, secretary-general of the council. “Though the council did not have the evidence to prove that all those documents were forged, it has the right to reject a certificate if it suspects its origin or credibility.”
The council detected 800 fake certificates while registering and grading their certificates for registration. The fake documents included those of doctors, pharmacists, nurses, opticians, laboratory technicians and physiotherapists, dental technicians and technicians of X-ray, sterilization, anesthesia, EEG, labor rooms and blood banks.
“However, the council has learned that some of the holders of rejected certificates are still working in their respective establishments, even after it notified the licensing department about such people,” he said.
He added that the licensing department did not have sufficient number of inspectors to make field checks and stop unqualified people from working. The council had informed the Passport Department and the Ministry of Health of the matter, he said.
He put the total number of barred medical workers in the Kingdom at 12,000. The ban is either temporary or final. The permanent ban is mostly because of the negligence in professional ethics or unacceptable qualifications including forgery. Temporary ban is for the workers who do not pass the evaluation tests, which they might pass later after attending more training programs, he said.
Meanwhile, Madinah Gov. Prince Abdul Aziz bin Majed ordered a committee to study and evaluate the courses and activities of all private medical institutes in the province. The students of many of these institutes have been complaining about the poor standards of teaching and training they received.

Credit Arabnews.com



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Sat collision highlights growing threat
There are some 17,000 man-made objects orbiting our planet

The collision between a US and Russian satellite in space highlights the growing importance of monitoring objects in orbit.

Space debris (Esa)It also shows that there are still significant capability gaps in current systems set up for this task. There are about 17,000 man-made objects above 10cm in size that orbit Earth - and the tally is constantly increasing. This in turn raises the risk of collisions between objects.
Richard Crowther, an expert on space debris and near-Earth objects, told BBC News: "It is unfortunate but inevitable, first that we would see such a collision in Low Earth orbit, and secondly - given the number of Iridium satellites in its constellation - more likely that the Iridium system would be affected rather than single satellite systems." The commercial Iridium satellites comprised a network of 66 spacecraft up until the accident. According to Dr Crowther, from the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), the group also occupies "a very crowded altitude of low- Earth orbit". Nevertheless, experts say the incident was extremely unusual. Although there have been some near-misses and a few minor collisions, this is the first time two intact satellites have crashed into each other. "Even with a constellation of 66 satellites, if you do the geometry there is still a huge amount of space," said Patrick Wood, head of satellites at EADS-Astrium, Europe's biggest space company. The craft were travelling at thousands of kilometres per hour when they crashed into one another. "They were travelling so fast, the timing of any collision would be extremely difficult to predict. But also, the sheer probability of two spacecraft hitting each other is incredibly low," Mr Wood explained.
Space junk

But experts now see another potential threat. Richard Crowther explained: "Unique to the Iridium system is that all the remaining 65 satellites in the constellation pass through the same region of space - at the poles. "So the debris cloud that is forming as a result of the Iridium satellite breakup will present a debris torus of high (spatial) density at 90 degrees to the equator that all the surviving Iridium satellites will need to pass through." Intact satellites share Earth's orbit with everything from spent rocket stages and spacecraft wreckage to paint flakes and dust. The diffuse mist of junk around our planet is the legacy of 51 years of human activity in space. At orbital velocities, even small pieces of space debris can cause serious damage to spacecraft.And both the Americans and Russians have networks of tracking stations to monitor objects. The US military operates 25 centres around the world involved in space surveillance, including one at RAF Fylingdales in the UK. Russia's space surveillance facilities include an "Okno" optical tracking system near Nurek, Tajikistan, and a "Krona" long-range radar and optical tracking centre at Storozhevaya in south-west Russia. China and the European Space Agency (Esa) are developing their own systems. Experts would almost certainly have been tracking the orbits of these two spacecraft. But in addition to the probability of a collision being vanishingly small, information on the positions of objects in space is only approximate, not exact.

Infographic (BBC)
Radars are generally used to track objects in low-Earth orbit, while optical telescopes are often used to observe objects further away from the Earth. Radio frequency technology - a form of electronic surveillance - can be used to assess whether or not satellites are active. An advanced ability to monitor space debris, satellites, near-Earth objects and solar activity is known as Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Many experts see this as a step to space traffic control. But co-operation on such matters between countries are complicated by defence sensitivities. Sharing data can betray the capabilities of a country's sensors. The latest incident has produced the worst field of space debris since China destroyed a defunct Fengyun 1-C satellite with a missile in January 2007. That incident, designed to test an anti-satellite weapon system, produced more than 2,000 separate fragments of debris.
Risk assessment

On Christmas Eve, the US Air Force notified Esa that a European weather satellite called Metop might be threatened by a piece of debris from the Chinese A-Sat test.  Ultimately, no action was taken. But the event highlighted Europe's near-total reliance on the US military for knowing what is going on in space. Nasa has said it considers the threat to the International Space Station (ISS) to be low, but that the orbiting outpost could carry out a collision avoidance manoeuvre if necessary. The ISS flies at an altitude of about 350km (220 miles), well below the point, some 790 km (490 miles) up, where the Russian and US satellites collided. But experts say the Hubble Space Telescope and Earth observation satellites at higher orbits and therefore closer to the collision point, could be at greater risk of damage. "The problem we've got is that there is a debris cloud which is in two slightly different orbits because of the spacecraft. The challenge now is to accurately track that debris cloud," said Patrick Wood..
Credit BBCNews.com

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 Beauty is in ....
Assalam-O-Alaikum
Spring season is setting in and we see colors all around us. What a beauty to delight our eyes with- blossoming flowers, lush green grass and foliages.
A farewell party to bid good bye to passing out class X and XII was recently held in the school I teach in. Most of the girls were dressed in gaudy clothing, had done makeup and ornamented themselves with jewelry. However few were dressed in relatively simple clothing and hardly any makeup. Yet they looked beautiful. As the function progressed, and girls moved on the stage, I wondered what beauty is in real sense.
People often tend to judge beauty by the conventional standards. One is considered beautiful only if one has a certain figure and face. Physical appearance is what most rely on when categorizing something as beautiful. People tend only to look on the outside and then compare what they see with what is typically considered beautiful by the world. Is beautiful really what is classed as gorgeous by the laws of the world and glamour? No. I don’t agree to it.
It is sad to see girls (and boys as well) obsessed about having zero size figures these days and taking all pains to get fair complexion. It is a complex that society transfers in them.
How often you come across a person who is pretty in appearance but may not have a beautiful heart. Will you like to be in company of such a person or the one who may not be much acceptable by her/his appearance but has a golden heart full of sincerity and goodness.
We meet people who may be fat, have wrinkled skin, bald headed, blemishes on their face or may have any of the other things. The society frowns upon them and consider as ugly. Very few go beyond the physical appearance and try to look in the beautiful soul and heart that is hidden behind this not-so-pretty edifice. It is said, “Beauty lies in the eyes of beholder” …I never understood the logic behind this phrase. However sitting in the hall, watching the girl perform, I decided that I shall try to understand this famous quote. For next few days, everything and everyone that I came across, no matter physically beautiful or ugly, I tried to see them closer and discover their beauty. Each individual was beautiful. Not necessarily the physical beauty but each had a charm about them; for some their beauty was in their polite manners, others had brains, some had the beauty of courtesy and others had the sensible attitudes…
Folks, try not to judge people and things on their appearances. Look closer and you will find that everything in this world in beautiful. Enjoy the beauty of friend's affection, of child's innocence, of parental love, in milky moon and the graceful rivers… And in doing so, beauty will be mirrored in you.
Till next time, Allah Hafiz.
Ms. Amna Tariq Holy City of Makkah-Ul-Mukarrama

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